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For Health Consumers and Patients

What Did My Doctor Say?

The special words doctors and nurses use can be hard to understand. You may see or hear these words at your doctor’s office, on the Internet, on the radio or TV, or in newspapers or magazines. We call these words “medspeak.”

The Medical Library Association created this page to help you understand what a doctor or nurse tells you. You’ll find tips on how to understand many health words. The terms on this site were created with the help of the Working Group for Health Literacy, Massachusetts Health Sciences Library Network (MAHSLIN)

This is the end of a word. It means taking away by surgery. An "appendectomy" is surgery to take out your appendix.

This is part of a word. When used at the end of a word, it means producing. Pathogenesis means disease-producing.

This is part of a word. It means swelling. Swelling can be caused by an wound, break, or infection in your body. Tonsillitis means swelling of the tonsils. Signs of swelling are redness, pain, or heat.

This is part of a word. It means a large bunch of cells. It is in lymphoma. This is cancer where white blood cells grow faster than they should and make a tumor.

This is part of a word. It comes at the end of a word. It means that something is not normal. Trichinosis means having a worm in your stomach, gut, or muscles.

ante cibum, before meals

- ana, so much of each

This word means pus formed in the body to fight germs that cause infection.

This means “angiotensionconverting enzyme inhibitors”. These are drugs used to treat heart problems or high blood pressure. They help keep blood vessels open so the blood can flow more easily. Then the heart doesn’t have to work so hard.

This is a serious illness or injury. A doctor or nurse should take care of it right away.

This is the early stage of HIV infection. It is when a person is first infected with HIV. HIV means human immunodeficiency virus.HIV can cause AIDS.

until effective

- as much as desired

This word means to carefully follow instructions. An example is taking the right amount of medicine at the right time.

This is a kind of cell in the body. It stores energy as fat.

This is a drug or treatment that is used along with another drug or treatment to help it work better.

This means a material or treatment that helps another treatment work better.

This means Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. It is a disease in which people have trouble fighting off infections. People with AIDS get sick very easily. AIDS is caused by HIV.

This is part of a word. It means pain or ache. Myalgia means muscle pain.

This is when the body overreacts to something that is usually harmless. Things like dust, animal hairs, food or plants may do this. If you are allergic to something, you may have runny eyes, coughing, or itching.

This is a chemical mixture needed by the body to make protein.

These are drugs that help treat you if you are sick and or have an infection. They will not help if you have a virus.

These are proteins that the body makes to protect itself from bacteria and viruses.

This is something that triggers the body to fight infection. A vaccine is an example of an antigen.

This is the combination of three or more medicines given to HIV patients to slow down HIV infection. These medicines can be called a "cocktail."

ante partum, before childbirth

ante prandium, before dinner

This is a painful sore in the mouth. It can be called a canker sore.

This means the way your body gets rid of old and damaged cells.

aqua, water

This is the dark tissue around the nipple.

This means using a syringe or needle to take out fluid from a lump or cyst.

This means when a body part, cells, or tissue decrease in size or shrink.

ALH is a condition where cells that do not look normal grow in the breast glands that make milk; it is not cancer, but the chance of getting breast cancer later may be greater if you have ALH.

This means the chance of getting breast cancer for people who do not have any risk factors for the disease.

These are a type of white blood cell. They help to fight infections and viruses.

This means “two times a day.” An example is if you take your medicine once in the morning and once at night.

These are tiny organisms found in dirt, water and air. Some of them are helpful, but others may make you sick. Germs are bacteria.

This is a test that measures how much air you breathe and how much energy you spend. The test is done when you are resting quietly.

This means “not cancer” or ther is no cancer. A benign tumor is one that does not have cancer.

This means changes in the breast that may cause pain or lumpiness, but they are not cancer. Some changes (such as fibrocystic disease and swollen breasts) may increase the chance of getting breast cancer.

These are drugs often used to treat high blood pressure. They help the heart beat more slowly and gently.

bis en die, twice each day

This means taking out a small amount of body tissue to test or look at under a microscope to diagnose or find out what the problem is.

This is a clump of blood that sticks together in the blood vessels (tubes that carry blood). A blood clot can stop the blood from flowing.

This means your bone marrow can't work as well to make blood cells so there are fewer of them. Some drugs make this happen.

This is part of a word. It means something to do with the arm. For example, a brachial vein is a vein in your arm.

This is part of a word. It means slow. Bradycardia” means slow heart beat.

These are genes that control growth of cells in the breast; when they do not work right, they may increase the chance of getting breast cancer.

This term describes the type and amount of tissue in the breast. A dense breast (common in young women) has less fatty tissue. A mammogram of dense breasts may be harder to read or interpret, so a doctor may suggest using ultrasound, which uses sound waves.

These are sacs placed in the breast and filled with a substance such as saline or silicone. Implants are often used to reconstruct or replace the breast after a mastectomy.

This is a check by a woman of her own breasts. Women should know how their breasts feel and report any change to a health care provider as soon as it is found. For more information, call 1.800.227.2345 or visit

These are parts of a word. They mean some of the tubes in your throat and chest you use to breathe. The tubes go into your lungs. BRONCHI is in the word “bronchitis”. Bronchitis means these tubes are swollen inside.

This is a term for extra fat on the upper back and neck. It is caused by taking HIV drugs.

This means high weight loss due to illness. This can happen to AIDS patients.

Also called microcalcifications, these are small amounts of calcium that build up in the breast and can only be seen on a mammogram. They may be an early sign of breast cancer.

Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of cells that are not normal in the body.

This is part of a word. It means cancer. CARCIN is in the word “carcinogen”. It means “things that cause cancer.”

This is another name for cancer.

This is cancer in one place in the body that has not spread into other tissues.

This is part of a word. It means heart. CARDIO is in “cardiovascular system”.These are all the body parts that help blood move around.

These are white blood cells that help other cells fight infection. CD4 cells are the main target of HIV infection. A CD4 count below 200 means a person has AIDS.

This means when a needle is put into the body to take out some fluid.

This means “Coronary Heart Disease”. This is a clog in the “pipes” where blood comes out of the heart. The “pipes” are called the coronary arteries.

This means using drugs or vitamins to (1) prevent cancer in someone who is at risk of getting cancer; or (2) prevent cancer from coming back in someone who has been treated for the cancer.

This is a part of your genes. They look like tiny threads inside each cell. They are in all the cells of your body. Genes make you who you are. You get them from your birth parents.

This is when a sickness has no cure. It lasts a long time. Your doctor might be able to help you keep it from getting worse. People who have asthma or diabetes have chronic disease.

This is a physical exam of the breast, underarm, and collarbone area, done by a health care provider, to check for lumps.

This is a count of your blood cells. It includes separate counts of red and different types of white blood cells.

This term means X-rays linked to a computer to view cross-sections (slice pictures) of the body

This means the use of a computer program to take a second look at a mammogram film to find abnormal areas after the radiologist has taken a first look.

This means the use of a needle to take out tissue to look at under a microscope.

This means normal tissue changes that happen in the breast during the menstrual cycle. You may sometimes feel tenderness, swelling, or pain.

This is a small sac or mass in your body that fills with fluid. May also be called cyst (in breast).

These are proteins made by CD4 cells. They pass messages from cell to cell. Some messages tell a cell to grow. Other messages tell them to stop growing.

This is a T-cell that can find and break apart the cells that have a virus inside them.

This is a sac or pouch that forms inside your body. The pouch fills up with fluid. The fluid gets stuck inside the pouch.

cum, with


This word means you start to feel a little better. You have fewer symptoms.

This is part of a word. It means skin. A dermatologist is a skin doctor.

This is when a doctor decides what’s making you sick. A doctor looks at tests, symptoms. and your medical history. The doctor then makes a diagnosis.

This is the use of an X-ray to check for breast cancer after finding a lump or other sign of possible disease.

This is a list of diseases with symptoms that are alike. A fever and a runny nose are symptoms. The flu or the common cold are possible causes

This means using a computer to record X-ray images of the breast.

This is part of a word. It can mean “not”. A dislocated bone is not in the right place.

This is short for “deoxyribonucleic acid”. DNA is in each cell in your body and tells the cells what proteins to make. The proteins control what the cell will do.

This is the material in the body that holds information about you like hair color and eye color. It is found in each cell. Parents pass on their DNA to their children.

This is the same as "Buffalo hump," and is extra fat on the upper back and neck. It is caused by taking HIV drugs.

This is when certain bacteria, viruses, and parasites don’t die when treated with some drugs. Once they develop resistance, they can survive and grow, or other drugs have to be used to kill them.

This means there is a change in the way a drug works when it is taken at the same time as another drug.

These are cells in the breast duct that are not normal; they do not spread but may lead to breast cancer if not taken out.

These are tubes or channels that carry body fluids; for example, breast ducts (mammary glands) bring milk to the nipple.

This is part of a word. It can mean “hard.” A dyslexic person has trouble reading.

This is part of a word. It means outside. Ectoderm is a layer of skin.

This is swelling caused by fluid build-up. This can be caused by allergy, disease, or injury. Edema most often occurs in feet, ankles, and legs.

This means electroencephalogram. This is a test that measures the electrical activity of your brain. This test does not hurt.

This means electrocardiogram. This test measures the electrical activity in your heart. This test does not hurt.

This is part of a word. It means electricity.

These are important chemicals in the body that you need to stay healthy.

This is something that blocks a blood vessel. It can be a blood clot, a clump of cells, an air bubble, or a foreign object.

This is part of a word. It means inner or inside. Endocarditis means a swelling inside the heart.

These are groups of cells that make chemicals inside the body that tell your body how to work and grow.

These are drugs. They stop HIV from going into healthy T-cells in the body.

This is a test to see if the blood has HIV in it. Most often it is the first test done. If the test shows HIV in the blood, a second test is done to make sure.

This is part of a word. It means over or above. See “epidermis”

This means the top layer of skin.

This means a biopsy that tries to take out a whole lump or odd tissue area to test or look at under a microscope.

These are groups of cells that give off fluids such as sweat, tears, and saliva.

This means a wrong result of a breast X-ray that shows cancer is not there—when it really is there.

This means a wrong result of a breast X-ray that shows cancer is there—when it really is not there.

This is a layer of tissue below the skin that covers your muscles, soft organs, and other tissues.

This is the way the body changes fatty foods into energy.

This is lumpy fat tissue that may form in the breast after surgery, radiation, or a bruise or punch in the chest area.

This is a growth in the breast that is firm and moveable but is not cancer.

This is a firm lump in the breast that moves around when touched but is not painful and is not cancer.

These are lumps or cysts in one or both breasts. They may be painful or uncomfortable, but they are not cancer.

This is when there are two or more drugs in one pill. People can take fewer pills because one pill takes the place of two pills.

These are the two “soft spots” found on the top of a baby’s head. Fontanels usually disappear by the time the baby is 18-24 months old.

This is a newer kind of drug for HIV. It slows the HIV virus from holding onto the cell. This may stop the cell from getting infected.

This is part of a word. It means stomach. “Gastritis” means the stomach is red and irritated inside.

This is the smallest part in a body that stores information about how a body will look and work. It is made from DNA. Genes tell each cell how to make proteins. The proteins make your body work right. A parent passes their genes on to their children.

This is another term for fibrocystic disease.

This is part of your DNA. Genes control such things as eye color and body size.

This is all the material in the body that stores information about how a body will look and work.

This may also be called Genotypic Antiretroviral Resistance Test, or "GART." This is a blood test to find out if certain drugs can fight the HIV virus in your body or not.

This a group of X-rays of the gut or digestive system. It can help your doctor make a diagnosis.

This is a group of cells in the body that makes and gives off things that the body needs, such as tears, sweat, and hormones.

hora somni, at bedtime

This means the time it takes for only half the original amount of a drug to still be in your body.

This is part of a word. It means blood. Hematoma means a swelling with blood inside.

This means there is too much fat inside your liver. Also known as "fatty liver."

This means Human Immunodeficiency Virus. This virus causes AIDS

This is when the virus level stays the same after it first goes into the body.

These are drugs made up of hormones used to offset or stop the effects of menopause.

These are chemicals made in the body by endocrine glands. Hormones go into the blood to control cells and organs in other parts of the body.

This is the virus that causes AIDS most of the time. It weakens the immune system. Your body cannot fight off diseases. A person can get this virus from bodily fluids of other people.

This is like HIV-l but not as strong. It develops more slowly. Some of the drugs that work to fight HIV-l do not work for people infected with HIV-2.

This is part of a word. It means more or over. For example, a hyperactive thyroid puts too many thyroid hormones in the blood.

This means an abnormal increase in the number and growth of normal cells.

This is part of a word. It means less. For example, a hypoactive thyroid is not making enough thyroid hormones in your body.

idem, the same


This is when the body can't fight germs or viruses. You may be born like this (primary immunodeficiency). Or, a disease can make it happen (secondary immunodeficiency).

This is when your body fights against things that do not belong in it by trying to destroy them. This can happen even with harmless things. See “allergy”

This means outside a living body. An example is in a test tube.

This means that something takes place inside a living body.

This is a biopsy that takes out only part of a lump or suspicious tissue area to test or look at under a microscope.

This is the time between when a person first gets a disease and when they start to get sick.

This means something not active or growing slowly, with little pain.

This means that outside germs or bacteria have come into your body and are making it sick.

This means cancer that has spread beyond where it first started. It can also be called invasive cancer.

This word means your body is reacting to something that is wrong, like a wound or burn. If part of your body is inflamed, it may be red, painful, and feel very warm.

This is part of the HIV virus that puts its own information into cells.

This is part of a word. When used at the beginning of a word, it means inside. Intracranial means inside the head or skull.

This is a benign (not cancer) tumor that looks like a wart and starts in the duct of a breast; if there is more than one, there may be a chance of getting breast cancer.

This is also called infiltrating cancer. This means cancer that has spread beyond where it first started.

This is damage to body parts that is caused by a lack of blood and oxygen.

This is part of a word. It means near. Juxtaspinal means near the spine.


This is a cancer that happens sometimes when people get AIDS. It causes blood vessels to enlarge. The skin can have pink or purple spots or small bumps. This cancer can also be inside the body in the intestines, lymph nodes, or lungs. It is life threatening. People with KS also have AIDS.

This is a scar that is hard and raised. It can keep growing after a wound has healed.

These are substances your body makes as fats break down. High levels of ketone bodies in blood or urine can be a sign of diabetes.

This is a substance in your intestine that helps you digest (break down) milk sugars (lactose). People with lactose intolerance cannot digest milk products.

This is part of a word. It means speech. The word “lalopathy” means speech defect.

These are white blood cells.

This means a lower than normal count of white blood cells.

This is a band of tissue that joins bones to other bones to make joints.

This is part of a word. It means body fat. Liposuction is surgery to take out body fat.

This is the part of the breast that makes milk.

This means cancer has come back in the same place where it first started.

This means using a mammogram to find cancer tissue so it can then be taken out to test or look at under a microscope.

This means surgery to take out only the breast lump that has cancer.

This is a fluid made in the lymph glands that contains white blood cells. White blood cells help your body fight infection.

These are small glands in many places in the body that remove cell waste and fight infections. Some breast cancers may spread to the lymph nodes under a woman's arm.

This is one kind of white blood cell. They fight viruses. The two main types are B-cells and T-cells.

This is a white blood cell that eats germs and bad cells.

This means a harmful condition. A malignant tumor is one that continues to grow.

This means a harmful condition; a malignant tumor is one that continues to grow.

This means when ducts under the nipple fill with fluid. This may be painful, but it is not cancer.

This is an X-ray exam of the breast.

This is surgery to remove all or part of the breast, usually because there is cancer.

This is a bacterial infection in the breast that mainly affects mothers who are nursing babies.

misce bene, mix well

minimum daily requirement

minimum effective dose

This means a kind of thin skin. It covers some body parts. Your nasal membrane covers the inside of your nose.

This is the time in a woman's life when her menstrual period stops, usually between the ages of 45 and 55.

This is a word that means when cancer cells spread in your body.

This means Myocardial Infarction. An MI is a heart attack where blood can’t get to the heart so the heart stops beating.

This is when a small operation is done. The person is not always put to sleep. Sometimes a body part is given drugs to numb it. Only a short time is spent in the hospital. It also can be done in a doctor’s office.

This is part of a word. It means one or single. MONO is used in many medical words. Mononucleosis is a sickness of one part of the blood. Only the white blood cells have it. Monochromatic means having one color.

These are parts of a word. They mean muscle. Myalgia means muscle pain.

This is a cover around each nerve. It protects them.

This is an eye problem. Things far off seem blurry. This is also called near-sightedness.

This is part of a word. It means nose. Nasogastric tube means a tube that goes down your nose. The tube goes into your stomach.

This is a biopsy that uses a needle to take out tissue or fluid from the breast to test or look at under a microscope. With this operation there is less scarring and less cost than other kinds of surgery.

This word means a baby less than 1 month old.

This is part of a word. It means kidney. Nephrectomy Is a word that means having a kidney taken out.

This is part of a word. It means nerve. Nerves send messages about pain, heat, cold, and other feelings. Neurology is the study of the body’s nervous system, including the brain. Neurologists are doctors that treat problems with the nervous system.

This is when you have a low number of one kind of white blood cell. This can happen with HIV infection.

This means that fluid that is not milk comes out of the nipple.

This is a kind of drug that does not let the virus make more viruses.

This term means cancer in the breast that can only be seen on a mammogram but not felt by physical exam.

This is part of a word. It means being sick. Nosocomial means getting sick in a hospital.

nil peros, nothing by mouth

This is what helps make nucleic acids. Nucleic acids help make up your genetic material.

This is a kind of drug that fights HIV. These drugs don't let the virus make copies of itself.

This is a drug that has fake copies of nucleosides. The fake is copied into the virus. Then healthy cells can't get the virus.

nono, without

oculus dexter, right eye

oculus sinister, left eye

This is part of a word. It means cancer. An oncologist is a doctor who helps people take care of cancer.

This is a doctor who takes care of patients with cancer.

This is an operation where both a biopsy and surgery are done at the same time.

This is when someone's body can't fight germs or viruses because they are sick already.

This means any life form, such as an animal, bacteria, cell, germ, plant, or virus.

This is part of a word. It means bone. Osteoporosis means bones that are weak.

This is when the inside part of your bones get thinner. It can happen when someone gets old. HIV drugs can make it happen too.

This means the ear is swollen because of germs. Otitis media is a problem in the middle of the ear.

This means pressing the fingers on the skin to feel tissue and organs under the skin.

This is when your heart beats really fast.

This is when sugar water or drugs are given with a needle. The needle goes into a vein. This is done for people who can’t eat or swallow pills.

This is any kind of organism that can make you sick. Bacteria and viruses can be pathogens.

This is a doctor who identifies disease by looking at cells or tissue under a microscope.

by mouth

This is part of a word that means around, about or near. A pericardial sac is a sack around the heart.

This is when a mother who has HIV gives it to her baby. It happens when the baby is born. It can happen when she breastfeeds the baby. Sometimes it is called mother-to-child transmission.

This is lung sickness that happens mostly in children. It is caused by a germ.

This is a laboratory test to show what drugs work best against HIV.

This is part of a word. It is when some muscles can’t move. A paraplegic person can’t move parts of his or her body.

This is an X-ray test used to find cancer using radioactive glucose (sugar). The sugar gets picked up by cancer cells as it goes through the body.

This means after. Post-surgical means after surgery.

This is also called preventive mastectomy. This is surgery to remove a breast that is not known to have cancer, to reduce the risk of getting the disease later.

This is when someone takes medicine to keep from getting sick.

This is a group of drugs that stop the HIV virus from copying itself. PIs can limit HIV copying in cells that are already sick.

These are made up of amino acids. They are necessary for the body to work correctly.

This means an itch or a feeling that makes you want to scratch.

post, after

This means quaque die, every day. You need to take your medicine at the same time once a day or every 24 hours.

This means "four times each day." You need to take your medicine four times each day or every six hours.

quaque hora, every hour

quater in die, four times a day

This is when a person with germs is kept away from others. The germs can make other people sick. Quarantine keeps other people safe.

quatum vis, as much as you wish

This is part of a word. It means spine, the bones in the center of your back.

This is a unit of measure for radiation.

This means using high-energy rays (radiation) to damage, shrink, or kill cancer cells.

This is radioactive sugar put into the blood. Cancer cells use more glucose than normal cells, so cancer shows up more in a PET scan.

This is a doctor with special training in using X-rays and imaging scans.

This is a laboratory test to see if you have HIV. This test takes less than 60 minutes. A positive Rapid Test result does not always mean you have HIV. A second test called a HIV Western Blot test will be done.

This means how genetic materials go from one cell to another.

This is when a person’s kidneys stop working. Kidneys get rid of body waste. If they don’t work, the waste stays in a person’s blood and makes them sick.

This can mean a system of connected parts, a network.

This is a type of virus that has RNA material. It can make many copies of itself. HIV is a retrovirus.

a chemical needed by the HIV virus to copy itself.

These are drugs that slow down reverse transcriptase.

This is swelling and redness inside the head and nose. It is usually caused by allergies or a cold.

This means something that increases a person's chance of getting cancer. Some risk factors are family history, smoking, or a previous breast biopsy that was not normal.

This is like DNA. RNA changes the DNA plan for make proteins.

This means Respiratory Syncytial Virus. This virus causes breathing problems in children or adults. RSV can be spread by coughing or sneezing.

recipe, prescription

CARE helps people living with HIV/AIDS and their families find and pay for care.

Sometimes certain drugs no longer help people with HIV This is another way to make them better.

This is part of a word. It means blood. Exsanguinate means to bleed a lot.

This is part of a word. It means flesh or soft tissue.Sarcoma means cancer of the soft tissue.

This is part of a word. It means divide or split. For example, a schizoid person is split off from other people.

This is part of a word. It means hard. Arteriosclerosis means hardening of the arteries. Arteries are the blood vesselsthat move blood away from the heart.

This means a benign (not cancer) condition with increased, abnormal growth of scar-like tissues in the breast's lobes.

This is an infection. It can make you sick. It is sometimes called blood poisoning.

This is when the body makes higher amounts of antibodies. Antibodies can fight HIV.

This is a disease you can get from having sex.

These are soft parts inside the body. Examples of soft tissues are muscle, fat, or nerves.

This is the way doctors treat a disease most of the time.

statim, immediately

This means something does not change or stays the same.

This means using a 3D X-ray to find a suspicious area and then doing a needle biopsy.

This is part of a word. It means under. Sublingual means under the tongue.

sumat, let it be taken



This is a type of white blood cell, also called T lymphocyte. Your doctor may use this term to mean the same thing as CD4 cells. The count of your T-cells can sometimes tell your doctor when you should start some treatments for HIV.

This is part of a word. It means fast. Tachycardia means fast heartbeat.

This is a common hormonal drug used to treat breast cancer or reduce the risk of a higher-risk patient getting cancer.

measures how much of a drug is in your blood. TDM helps make sure that the medicines are at the right level TO work best.

This is part of a word. It means heat. Thermostable means stable when heated.

This is part of a word. It means blood clot. Thrombosis means a blood clot in an artery.

ter in die, three times each day

This means cells that look alike and work together for a common task. Lung tissues work together to let you breathe.

This means to be on the surface. A topical cream can be placed or rubbed on the skin.

This is a part of a word. It means across, through, or over. Transorbital means through the eye socket.

This is part of a word. It means hair. Trichobezoar means hair ball.

This is any growth of tissue that is not normal; it can be benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer).

These are things in the blood, urine, or tissues. When they are found at higher than normal levels, it may mean there is cancer.

This is a sore on the skin or organ membrane. An ulcer can be caused by an infection or disease. A membrane is a tissue that covers an organ. A common type of ulcer is in the stomach.

This is when you don't have much virus in your body. A test does not find the small amount. You can still give the virus to someone else.

This is part of a word. It means urine or urinary tract. Uroscopy means an exam of urine.

ut dictum, as directed

This is part of a word. It means uterus, also known as womb. Uterotonic means the tone or strength of the uterus muscles. VACCINE – These are drugs that are given to protect from disease. They can be given by mouth or in a shot. A flu shot is a vaccine.

This is a drug that keep you from getting a disease. Vaccines can be given by mouth or in a shot. For example, flu shots are a vaccine.

In your body, this is a tissue that makes liquid flow in only one way. There are valves in the heart, veins, and other places that keep your blood moving in your body.


This is the amount of the HIV virus in the blood.

This is a large increase in the amount of HIV virus in your blood. It can happen even though you are taking your medications. It may mean that the medications are not working as well as before.

This is a germ that causes disease that cannot be cured by antibiotics. Measles and chicken pox are caused by viruses. Antibiotics will not help cure a virus.

This is a tiny germ that causes diseases. Viruses cannot be cured by drugs. Measles and chicken pox are caused by viruses. So is HIV.



This is a big weight loss. You may have fever and diarrhea.

This is a type of blood test to see how hard the body is fighting a virus.

This is a whistling sound made when you breathe, as in asthma or other lung disease. Wheezing can also be caused by an object stuck in your airway.

These are cells that fight germs in the body. AIDS makes people have fewer white blood cells and they can get sick easier.

These are body changes such as shaking or sweating that you feel when you suddenly stop taking or using some kinds of drugs or alcohol.

unknown factor

This is the part of a gene that makes a baby a girl. Girls have two X chromosomes and boys have one X and one Y chromosome.

This is a high-energy form of radiation used to take a very precise picture of a part of the body.

This is part of a word. It means strange or foreign. Xenophobia means fear of strangers.

This is part of a word. It means dry. Xeroderma is dry skin.

This is the part of a gene that makes a baby a boy. Only boys have a Y chromosome.

This is part of a word. It means animals. Zoology means the study of animals.

This word means bones on the face below the eyes. Cheekbones are a type of these bones.

this is a single cell that forms when a sperm and egg join.