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Veterinary Medical Libraries Section History, 1972-1998

  VMLS members

The Veterinary Medical Libraries Section of the Medical Library Association: 1972 - 1998

The authors' purpose was to compile a historical account of the Veterinary Medical Libraries Group / Section of the Medical Library Association. Sources were recorded data described as accurately as possible from documents included in available archival materials.

Veterinary medical libraries and librarians are organized as a specialty section within the Medical Library Association. The section includes librarians from veterinary medical schools, allied animal health fields, primate research centers, drug companies, and government agencies. The section's goals are to provide library information to veterinary professionals and to foster cooperation among veterinary libraries by sharing materials and information.

Two of the authors, Ms. Henley and Ms. MacNeil were founding members of the Veterinary Medical Libraries Group (later known as the Veterinary Medical Libraries Section). Atha Louise Henley retired in 1995 having served as a librarian in the Science and Technology Department of the Draughon Library at Auburn University Libraries since 1983, and as the Veterinary Medical Librarian, 1970-1983. Kathrine MacNeil recently retired as Electronic Resources Coordinator, Medical Sciences Library, Texas A&M University, 1982-1998. Gretchen Stephens currently is the Veterinary Medical Librarian at Purdue University, 1977- .

The Beginnings
In many cases, veterinary collections existed many years before veterinary libraries were established and professional librarians hired. Those of us who have served as the first professional librarians in the various veterinary medical colleges here in North America, especially in the United States and Canada, were greatly aided in collection development by faculty department representatives. Often, our holdings of veterinary medicine and related sources on medical specialties and comparative medicine had been the textbooks and private collections of early deans and faculty members of the individual institutions.

Some veterinary schools and colleges were outgrowths of veterinary or agricultural departments and were established following recognized support of a state's legislature. [1] With an increase in the number of accredited schools came recognition of the need for library service and for trained, professional library staff. Such staff recognized a need for affiliation and cooperation with one another, in other words, the need for a professional association.

This was the impetus for the founding of the Veterinary Medical Libraries Group (VMLG) of the Medical Library Association. Its stated purpose was:

  • to stimulate and foster interest in veterinary medical libraries and librarianship,
  • to acquaint persons interested in veterinary medical libraries and librarianship with the Association,
  • to encourage development of and cooperation among veterinary medical libraries, and
  • to foster a forum for the exchange of ideas and the discussion of mutual problems and concerns. [2]

Pioneering veterinary medical librarians were:

  • Elsie Bergland, Colorado State University
  • Marian Estep, University of Illinois-Urbana
  • Ann E. Kerker, Purdue University, and
  • Evelyn Raynolds, University of Minnesota.

Ms. Bergland and Ms. Estep conducted a survey among librarians in 1963 and suggested meeting as a group at the MLA Annual Meeting in Chicago, IL, June 4-9. [3]

These leaders were instrumental in educating with determination and persistence those persons in medical professions, especially members of the Medical Library Association, to recognize the importance of veterinary medicine as a vital part of medicine. In the 1960's and 1970's, the publications of these librarians contributed to a better understanding of the subject area. Of particular importance was Ms. Kerker's bibliography, Comparative and Veterinary Medicine, a Guide to the Resource Literature, published by the University of Wisconsin Press in 1973.

Dr. Marjan Merala, retired veterinarian and former head of the Health Sciences Library, University of California, Davis, reported, "The beginnings were very quiet, participation was low, and for a few years it did not appear that the veterinary section was viable at that time. Ann Kerker was the primary mover, and perhaps Mia Reinap, Librarian of the Flower Veterinary Library, New York State College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, and Elsie Bergland assisted. Jean-Paul Jette, Bibliotheque de Montreal, Universite de Montreal, St. Hyacinthe, Quebec, Canada, came on board early and helped." [4]

Veterinary medical librarians were encouraged to join the Medical Library Association, and, in the 1960's and 1970's, some affiliated with the History of Medicine Group or the Research Libraries Group. In 1972, six veterinary librarians attended the annual meeting held in the Del Coronado Hotel, San Diego, CA. These were: Trenton Boyd, E. Guy Coffee, Atha Louise Henley, Ann E. Kerker, Isabel McDonald, and Kathrine MacNeil.

The 1973 MLA Annual Meeting was held in Kansas City, MO. Before the meeting, under the guidance of Ms. Kerker, permission was sought from and granted by the MLA program planning committee for the veterinary medical librarians to have a breakfast meeting. The "unofficial group" meeting was listed in the Preliminary Program, and was held on May 30th. Academic veterinary medical librarians attending were:

  • Atha Louise, Henley Auburn University
  • Dr. Marjan Merala, University of California, Davis
  • William Loughner, University of Georgia
  • Mrs. Joan Hicks, University of Illinois, Urbana
  • Ann E. Kerker, Purdue University
  • E. Guy Coffee, Kansas State University
  • Trenton Boyd, University of Missouri, Columbia, and
  • Sue Taylor, Texas A&M University.

Also in attendance were:

  • Cynthia Shadbolt, Connaught Laboratories, Willowdale, Ontario, Canada
  • Suzanne Johnson, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX
  • Isabel McDonald, Oregon Regional Primate Research Center, and
  • Carmel Corrivea, University of Tennessee.

A slide/tape production, "Veterinary Medical Library Serials," was presented by Ms. Henley, and a duplicate serials list was distributed by Mr. Coffee.

Later in the MLA Annual Meeting, twenty-nine encounter groups met in the Imperial Ballroom. The Veterinary Medical Libraries Group was led by Guy Coffee (Kansas State University) and Sue Taylor (Texas A&M University). It was agreed to designate Ms. Kerker as Program Chairman, Mr. Coffee as editor of a newsletter, and Ms. Henley as chair of the Ad Hoc Steering Committee with the goal of gaining official recognition of the group in the Medical Library Association. [5]

Support for a Veterinary Medical Libraries Group/MLA
Ms. Kerker, with the prior approval of MLA President Sarah Brown, drafted a letter to medical librarians working in subject areas related to medical research and veterinary medicine requesting their support for a veterinary group. The draft was later completed by Ms. Henley and distributed. By December 1, 1973, more than sisty-five medical librarians had indicated their support by signing the group's petition to the Executive Board of the Medical Library Association. Many signers were from the MLA leadership including members of the MLA Executive Board. Signatures were sought and received from librarians in fields related to general medicine, laboratory animal medicine, and veterinary medicine. Sixty-eight institutions were represented.

The Veterinary Medical Libraries Group was granted approval by the MLA board at their December 1973 meeting. [6] Sarah Brown, MLA President, commented on the President's Page of the Bulletin of the Medical Library Association, "It is encouraging to note that several new interest groups such as the veterinarian [sic] and audio-visual are expressing a desire to be added to the Medical Library Association program in San Antonio, TX. This represents growth and a wide scope for the whole association." [7] Appropriately enough, the theme for the 1974 Annual Meeting emphasized "Expanding the Roles of Health Sciences Librarians."

Charter Members
The Veterinary Medical Libraries Group held its first business meeting on June 4, 1974, at the 73rd Annual Meeting of the Medical Library Association in San Antonio, TX. Atha Louise Henley, Chair, reported on the progress that the Ad Hoc Steering Committee had made in achieving recognition by the MLA Board of Directors for the veterinary medical librarians to form this specialty group. Eleven members were present, ten from the nineteen U.S. schools of veterinary medicine accredited at the time, and one from Canada.

Officers elected were Winifred Kistler (University of California, Davis) to be Secretary/Chair-elect and Sarah Peterson (Aeromedical Library School of Aerospace Medicine, Brooks AFB) as the group's nominee for the MLA Nominating Committee.

David Anderson (University of California, Davis) proposed cooperative acquisition of foreign veterinary materials. He was appointed chairman of an ad hoc committee charged to investigate and propose projects in this area. He and Guy Coffee (Kansas State University) were interested in exploring cooperative acquisitions by veterinary libraries with representatives of the National Agricultural Library and the National Library of Medicine.

The VMLG held a luncheon meeting on Wednesday, June 5. Twenty-three persons attended. Invited guests were John LoSasso, MLA Executive Director, and Sarah Brown, MLA President. The officers and members were most pleased that she honored our group by her presence.

Ann Kerker, program chair, arranged for the guest speaker, Major G.W. Irving III, DVM, a Purdue graduate, and introduced him to the attendees. His address was entitled, "Comparative Medicine in the U.S. Air Force." Afterwards, he provided a tour bus to enable the attendees to visit the animal research facilities at Brooks Air Force Base. Thus the precedent was set for the veterinary librarians to make a tour a portion of their annual meeting.

During the 1975 MLA annual meeting in Cleveland, OH, Veterinary Medical Libraries Group (VMLG) held its second formal business meeting, chaired by Trenton Boyd. On June 3rd, group members enjoyed a box lunch followed by a tour of the Cleveland Zoological Park, its library, and its animal hospital, hosted by Dr. Leonard J. Goss, Director, and Dr. Wallace E. Wendt, Zoo Veterinarian.

The Principal Organizer
Ann Elizabeth Kerker deserves much of the credit for bringing into being the Veterinary Medical Libraries Group of the Medical Library Association. Her background was in microbiology (B.S., Purdue University, 1933). She had twenty years of experience as a medical technologist, including ten years of service for the Exxon Company in Saudi Arabia and Aruba, ending in 1955. She returned to West Lafayette, Indiana, and accepted a position at Purdue University as a life science library assistant. The late Dean L. M. Hutchings, School of Veterinary Medicine, recruited her, and she enrolled at the University of Illinois, receiving her master of science degree in library science in 1959. She became Purdue University's first medical librarian and received the rank of Professor of Library Science. She was active in the American Library Association and in the Special Libraries Association and its Indiana Chapter, in the MLA Midwest Regional Group, and in the MLA Research Libraries Group. She also served as a consultant to other veterinary medical libraries in the U.S. and abroad. [8]

In 1975/76, she was elected president of the Medical Library Association, the first MLA President to come from an academic veterinary medical library. She presented the inaugural address, "The Big Picture," at the 75th Annual Meeting, which was held in Minneapolis, MN, June 4-7, 1976. She cautioned her audience to be aware of heritage, present concerns, and future roles in setting the goals of the association, and to be active in the direction of MLA benefits of cooperative efforts, understanding, and broad vistas.

At the 1976 business meeting of the VMLG, Winnifred Kistler presided, Sara R. Peterson (Iowa State University) was elected Secretary/Chairperson-Elect, and Guy Coffee (Kansas State University) was selected to be the Group's nominee to the MLA Nominating Committee. Atha Louise Henley (Auburn University) was appointed head of an Ad Hoc Committee to form a Basic List of Veterinary Medical Serials. Kathrine MacNeil was appointed head of an Ad Hoc Committee to study the feasibility of a union list of veterinary serials. There was unanimous agreement that the group should continue to have both a business meeting and a program meeting at the annual conventions. Guest speaker was Dr. Timothy Brasmer, University of Minnesota College of Veterinary Medicine. His talk was entitled, "Can Clinicians Read?" and described the difficulty of keeping up with the published literature. David Hull, (Ontario Veterinary College) presented a slide show entitled "Liaison with the National Library of Medicine, membership and international programs" which featured his newly expanded and remodeled library.

The Newsletter: Highlights and News Notes
The group's newsletter has been an asset in recording the important contributions to the expansion of the VMLG, its members, and its activities. The efforts of its first editor, Guy Coffee (Kansas State University) and the financial support of his institution are noteworthy.

Ms. Kerker obtained the services of Mr. Neil Harris, Veterinary Medical Scientific Illustrator at Purdue University, to design the masthead.

The first issue, volume 1, no.1, dated February 1974, included the following news. Elsie Bergland announced her retirement from Colorado State University as of June 30, 1974. Ms. D. Clarkson, librarian at the University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada, suggested an article on a veterinary medical library be regularly featured in the newsletter. Ms. Sara Peterson reported that Iowa State University obtained a medical library resource grant for developing their veterinary collection in the only branch library on campus. Kansas State University moved its veterinary collection to new quarters in October 1973. Ms. Sue Loubiere, first veterinary medical librarian at Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine, visited the Purdue University Veterinary Medical Library in December 1973.

Succeeding issues of the newsletter have included:

  • scheduled events and plans for conventions;
  • new appointments and retirements in veterinary libraries;
  • formation of section committees and the members serving on them;
  • minutes of annual business meetings,
  • biographies of veterinary librarians,
  • MLA regional group meeting notes;
  • MEDLINE training session publicity;
  • the Veterinary Medical Library Directory; and
  • the Survey of Veterinary Medical Libraries.

Organizations Maintaining Veterinary Materials that Supported the Group with Designated Liaisons

National Library of Medicine
Dr. Fritz Gluckstein, Coordinator for Veterinary Affairs, National Library of Medicine (NLM), became a member of the group, and often reported on new NLM projects at the group's meetings. This national library's focus was on the public health and zoonotic aspects of veterinary medicine. Betsy Humphreys, Chief of the Technical Services Division, and Dr. Clifford Backrach, head of NLM classification and indexing policies, encouraged comments from medical librarians following announcements and changes that were reported in issues of the NLM Technical Bulletin. Veterinary librarians were quick to comply and submit suggestions concerning subject headings.

National Agricultural Library
Mr. Jesse Ostroff, Technical Liaison Officer for Animal Science and Industry, Public Services Division, National Agricultural Library (NAL), became a member of the group. He often attended annual meetings and described the latest NAL information in his subject areas. Mr. Ostroff encouraged NAL and VMLG to cooperate in exhibits at annual meetings of the American Veterinary Medical Association. On March 7, 1986, he was recognized for twelve years of exemplary service for his work with the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) and the Veterinary Services Emergency Program Information Center (EPIC) Data Bank.

NAL also supported the group by a grant received by David Anderson (University of California, Davis) to fund a portion of the estimated cost of publishing the 3d edition of the Union List of Veterinary Serials.

Other Supportive Organizations

The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) and the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC) were supportive of the VMLG. The AVMA Council on Education reviewed the first Basic List of Veterinary Serials at their 1977 meeting in Atlanta, GA; subsequently they recognized the list and its revisions in succeeding editions. AVMA administrators have attended Group meetings, served as guest speakers, and have invited our members to visit and tour AVMA headquarters. Information on veterinary libraries and their services has been regularly published in the AVMA Directory.

Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux
The Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, later CAB International (CABI), Farnham Royal, England, has also supported the Group. Dr. Roy Mack, its director and editor of Index Veterinarius and Veterinary Bulletin, attended the group's meetings, was a guest speaker, and included publications of veterinary librarians in those indexes. When Dr. Mack retired from CABI in 1987, the VMLS sent him a plaque and letter of appreciation in recognition of his work.

CABI has encouraged the VMLG in several ways. CABI staff has taught workshops for which MLA Continuing Education credit was awarded and regularly gives presentations at annual meetings to inform members of important changes in the CABI indexes and databases. CABI also has underwritten Group/Section expenses for social events at numerous annual meetings.

 Section Programs through the Years
While in Seattle, WA, for the 1977 MLA Annual Meeting, members of the VMLG toured the NOAA's Fisheries Research Services Facilities and hear Dr. Joyce Hawkes speak on her investigation into the effects of petroleum on marine life. On the following day, June 15th, the group luncheon featured a program by Ms. Maryeva W. Terry on the "Washington Primate Information Center." Prior to the Chicago annual business meeting in June of 1978, Arthur Freeman, DVM, editor-in-chief for the American Veterinary Medical Association's two serial publications, spoke to the group on "AVMA Publications: Practices and Procedures."

In 1979, while in Honolulu, HA, the VML Group learned about "Aquaculture in Hawaii from the Veterinarian's Perspective," from Dr. James Brock, DVM, Hawaii Department of Planning and Economic Development. At the 1990 Washington, DC, annual meeting on June 18th, members of the Section heard Dr. Fritz Gluckstein (NLM) and Mr. Jesse Ostroff (NAL) speak on "NLM and NAL's Acquisitions Policies in Relationship to Veterinary Medicine." The following afternoon, members toured the National Library of Medicine (NLM) and the National Agricultural Library (NAL). The 1981 program in Montreal featured "W. Osler and Comparative Medicine," by Dr. Philip Theigen, Osler Librarian at McGill University. On the following day, June 2d, Jean-Paul Jette hosted a tour to the Veterinary Medical Library, University de Montreal, Ste. Hyacinthe.

During the 1982 MLA Annual Meeting in Anaheim, CA, J. F. Smithcors, DVM, Ph.D., Editor of American Veterinary Publications (Santa Barbara, CA) spoke to VML Section members on "Collecting and Writing in Veterinary Medical History." The next day, Dr. Roy Mack, F.R.C.V.S., Director of the Commonwealth Bureau of Animal Health (UK), spoke on "Some Current Trends in Veterinary Literature." In 1983, the Houston, TS, annual meeting featured a May 31st tour to the Texas A&M University Medical Sciences Library at College Station with the first part of the annual business meeting being held during the outgoing bus trip and a box supper served on the return trip. While at Texas A&M, section members heard Virginia L. Algermissen, Director of the Medical Science Library, speak on "The Initiation and Development of Clinical Librarianship," and Barbara Thomas, Head of Information Services, talk on "The Clinical Veterinary Librarian Program." Claudia Barton, DVM, Associate Professor of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, and Joseph Joyce, DVM, Professor of Large Animal Medicine and Surgery then shared their "Observations of the Clinical Veterinary Librarian Program." The next day, Sue Loubiere, Library Director of the Louisiana State University (LSU) School of Veterinary Medicine, presented a paper titled, "The Evolution of an Autonomous Veterinary Library," and Judy Jumonville, LSU School of Veterinary Medicine Serials Librarian, spoke on "the Dominic L. Degiusti Collection of Reprints on Parasitology, 1865-1972."

Prior to the section's annual business meeting in Denver, CO, on May 28, 1984, Professor Bernard E. Rollin, Colorado State University, spoke on "Animal Ethics." On May 29th, members enjoyed a tour of Colorado State's Veterinary Branch Library and the Animal Reproduction Laboratory with dinner at The Catacombs Restaurant in Fort Collins. "Animal Behavior and Problems," by Peter Borchelt, Ph.D., Psychologist/Behaviorist, Animal Medical Center, was the program on May 28, 1985, in New York, NY. A tour of the American Kennel Club Museum and Library and the Animal Medical Center, hosted by their librarian, Chris McMurray, was the highlight of the following afternoon with a section dinner at Il Vagabondo Restaurant

The 1986 meeting in Minneapolis, MN, featured a tour of the Como Park Zoo, St. Paul, and the Veterinary Medical Library and the Raptor Research Center at the University of Minnesota, followed by a Section dinner at the Fiftieth Floor Restaurants, IDS Center. Dr. Robert K. Anderson, Center to Study Human-Animal Relationships and Environments, University of Minnesota, spoke on "Human-Animal Relationships" after the dinner.

On May 18, 1987 in Portland, OR, the VML Section sponsored a contributed papers session with the annual business meeting being held later that afternoon, followed by dinner at Chang's Yangtze Restaurant. The next day Isabel McDonald hosted a tour of the Oregon Regional Primate Center (ORPC) with a lecture on "Simian AIDS" by Dr. Axthelm, ORPC. The highlight of the May 23, 1988, meeting in New Orleans, LA, was a program by Dean Kathleen Heim, School of Library and Information Services, Louisiana State University on "The Importance of Research and Publication to Health Sciences Library Personnel," followed by a section dinner at the Commander's Palace.

After the annual business meeting on May 21, 1989, in Boston, MA, Virginia Algermissen moderated the section contributed papers session featuring "Searching the Human Animal Bond Literature: Characteristics of the Literature and of Best Searches," by David C. Anderson (University of California, Davis), "If You Have Thought of It, this Can Do It," by Victoria T. Kok (Virginia Polytechnic Institute), "Human-Animal Bond Resources in a (Non-Veterinary) Health Sciences Library," by Karen Miller-Allen (SUNY-Buffalo), "Accessibility of Literature in Regard to Foreign Animal Diseases," by Stephens E. Perlman (Plum Island Animal Disease Center, NY), and "Teaching Veterinary Students and Faculty How to Search MEDLINE on CD-ROM," by Norma J. Bruce (Ohio State University). A section dinner was held at the Bay Tower Room the next evening, and, on May 25th, section members toured the New England Aquarium followed by a lunch and afternoon lobster clambake cruise on the Spirit of Boston.

During the 1990 Detroit, MI, meeting, the section heard Dr. George D. Phillips, Managing Editor for Animal Health, CAB International, explain "CAB International Publications and Plans." The highlight of the meeting was a program, jointly sponsored with the Research Libraries Section, featuring Willy Burgdorfer, Ph.D., M.D., Rocky Mountain Research Laboratories, National Institutes of Health, speaking on "Lyme Disease Today." Other activities included a tour of the Detroit Zoo and dinner at the New Hellas Restaurant.

On June 5, 1991, in San Francisco, CA, the section heard invited speakers: "Animal Rights and Biomedical Research," by Charles S. Nicholl, Ann B. Birkhaus, and Julie McNeal, and "A Demonstration of CONSULTANT, a Diagnostic Database of Animal Diseases," by Bradford P. Smith. During the business meeting, the section recognized retirees David Anderson (University of California-Davis), Sally Peterson (Iowa State University), and Isabel McDonald (Oregon Primate Research Center) for their many contributions to the section. An informal breakfast meeting featured "CAB International: New Products and Future Plans," by Avril Howell and Susan Hill, and the section sponsored a June 5th tour to the San Francisco Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals to learn about their hearing ear dogs and animal visitation programs.

The 1992 Washington, DC, meeting began with a section dinner at the American Union Station Restaurant on May 19th. The next morning's program, jointly sponsored with the Pharmacy & Drug Information Section, featured "Alternatives and Animals," by Dr. Alan M. Goldberg, Director of the Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, and "Medical Informatics," by Dr. Richard B. Talbot, DVM, Editor of the Journal of Veterinary Medical Education. A tour of the National Zoo and their library, hosted by Kay Kenyon, was a highlight later that afternoon.

A tour of the John G. Shedd Aquarium, featuring a behind the scenes tour by Dr. Jeff Boehm, began the 1993 meeting in Chicago, IL. The May 18th annual business meeting was followed by a program on "MVMAC - The Merck Veterinary Manual on the Macintosh Computer," by Ronald D. Smith, DVM, Ph.D., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and "A Demonstration of Focus on: Veterinary Science and Medicine," by Helen B. Atkins, Institute for Scientific Information. Diana's Opa was the site of the section dinner.

San Antonio, TX, was the site of the 1994 Annual Meeting, which featured Dr. Jim Jensen, DVM, Texas A&M University, speaking on "Importing Exotic Species: Benefits and Drawbacks." In celebration of the Section's 20th anniversary, a photograph of those founding members attending the 1994 meeting (Trenton Boyd, Sue Loubiere, Kathrine MacNeil, Atha Louise Henley, and Guy Coffee) was taken. Dinner followed at La Margarita Mexican Restaurant and Oyster Bar. Two days later on May 18th, the CAB International breakfast was followed by a tour of the Military Working Dog Unit, Lackland Air Base. A special feature of this meeting was a half-day "CAB Workshop on the New Online System."

In 1995, following a product update at the CAB breakfast in 1995, a overview of "Partnership: Collaborative Organization of Veterinary Biotechnology Information on the Internet via Mosaic," by Elizabeth Cooley and Pat Leigh was presented. This Washington, DC, meeting also featured a talk on the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology followed by a guided tour of the Walter Reed Medical Center's National Museum of Health and Medicine. The section dinner was held at the Red, Hot and Blue Restaurant.

In Kansas City, MO, section programming began with a tour/demonstration on "Reintroduction of River Otters in Missouri," by Glenn Chambers, BS, MA, Missouri Department of Conservation. On June 3, 1996, a program on "The Future of Veterinary Medicine on the Internet," by Ken Boschert, DVM, Director of the Division of Comparative Medicine, Washington University, preceded the annual business meeting. Dinner followed at the KC Masterpiece Barbecue & Grill.

On May 26, 1997, in Seattle, WA, the section members began the day with the CAB Breakfast meeting. Later that afternoon, they heard Sean Larsen, Staff Research Biologist, The Seattle Aquarium, speak on "Investigation into Hormonal Reproductive Strategies of Sea Otters (Enhydra lutra) at the Seattle Aquarium," and Robert Anderson, Life Sciences Exhibit Manager, The Seattle Aquarium, talk about "Salmon Enhancement in Washington State: Volunteer Programs Make A Difference." An evening tour of the Seattle Aquarium was followed by a cocktail party, which included a private viewing of "feeding time" for the sea otters.

On May 24, 1998, in Philadelphia, PA, the section, co-sponsored with the Cancer Librarians and the Patient Health Information Sections, a joint program on "Facing an Uncertain Future: Responses to Diagnosis." The following day began with the CAB breakfast followed by a late morning tour of the Biomedical Library at University of Pennsylvania, which featured a demonstration of the Canine Genetic Disease Information System (CGDIS) by Patricia L. Green, Project Coordinator, University of Pennsylvania. That afternoon, the program, "Future Imperfect: Issue in Veterinary Medical Librarianship," included papers by Norma Bruce and Jean-Paul Jette on "The Role of the Librarian in the Electronic Library" and "Veterinary Medical Education" by Norma Funkhouser. Kathrine MacNeil, who retired from Texas A& M University Medical Sciences Library in October, was recognized with a plaque commemorating her long and distinguished service to the section. The day concluded with dinner at Susanna Foo Chinese Cuisine.

Section Officers
Since its founding, the following members have served as chair of the section:

Atha Louis Henley, Auburn University
Trenton Boyd, University of Missouri
Winifred Kistler, University of California, Davis
Isabel McDonald, Oregon Regional Primate Research Center
Sara (Sally) Peterson, Iowa State University
Kathrine MacNeil, Oklahoma State University
K. Susanne Johnson, Colorado State University
Jean-Paul Jette, University of Montreal
Marjan Merala, University of California, Davis
Charlotte Neill, Texas A&M University
E. Guy Coffee, Kansas State University
Susanne K. Whitaker, Cornell University
Thea Fischer, North Carolina State University
Vicki F. Croft, Washington State University
Sue Loubiere, Louisiana State University
David C. Anderson, University of California, Davis
Gretchen Stephens, Purdue University
Melinda Saffer-Marchand, Tufts University
Victoria T. Kok, Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University
Livija Carlson, University of Minnesota
Kathrine J. MacNeil, Texas A&M University
Gayle K. Willard, Kansas State University
Norma J. Bruce, The Ohio State University
Ken Ladd, University of Saskatchewan
Esther E. Carrigan, Texas A&M University
Ann Viera, University of Tennessee

Trenton Boyd, University of Missouri, who served as chair in 1974/75, was elected last year to again lead the section during 1999/2000.

In the beginning, the section chair was responsible for conducting the next section business meeting including taking minutes, planning the program/tour/dinner at the following annual meeting and handling any activities or reports required by the association. In 1982, the growing responsibilities of the chair led the section to approve dividing that office into chair and secretary-treasurer. Guy Coffee (1982/83), Susanne Whitaker (1983/84), Thea Fischer (1984/85), Vicki Croft (1985/86), and Sue Loubiere (1986/87) served as secretary-treasurer, an office that included being chair-elect.

In 1987, the section approved its first dues and then amended the bylaws to split the secretary-treasurer office into secretary/chair-elect and treasurer. Since that time, David Anderson (1987/88) Gretchen Stephens (1988/89), Melinda Saffer-Marchand (1989/90), Victoria T. Kok (1990/91), Livija Carlson (1991/92), Kathrine J. MacNeil (1992/1993), and Gayle K. Willard (1993/94) have served as secretary/chair-elect.

With the 1994 bylaws revision, the office of secretary/chair-elect was split with Norma J. Bruce (1994/95), Ken Ladd (1995/96), Esther E. Carrigan (1996/97), Ann Viera (1997/98), and Trenton Boyd (1998/99) serving as chair/elect. Since then, Margaret K. Alexander (1995/97) and Laura Osegueda (1997/2000) have held the office of Secretary. Robert Sessions (1987/88), Norma J. Bruce (1990/93), Patricia J. Mullen (1993/96), and Leslie Behm (1996/99) have held the office of treasurer to date.

Since the Section Council was established by the Medical Library Association, the following section members have served as Section Council Representative: K. Suzanne Johnson, Colorado State University (1980/82), Sara (Sally) Peterson, Iowa State University (1982/85), Trenton Boyd, University of Missouri (1985/88), Isabel McDonald, Oregon Regional Primate Research Center (1988/90 Retired), Vicki F. Croft, Washington State University (1990/91), Sue Loubiere, Louisiana State University (1991/94), Gretchen Stephens, Purdue University (1994/97), and Carolyn Kopper, University of California, Davis (1997/2000).

 Section Committees in Action
In 1974, an Ad Hoc Committee to Study Cooperatively Acquiring Foreign Acquisitions, chaired by David Anderson, was appointed to study and recommend possible cooperative acquisitions projects that members may wish to participate in. The next year, this committee recommended that foreign veterinary medical libraries be invited to join and that the group consider formation of regional subgroups with the regional medical library system, create a plan to determine the resources, especially serials holdings, of veterinary libraries as well as national and Federal government libraries, formulate a plan for a union serials list of veterinary medical titles, study the acquisitions policies of NLM and NAL concerning the international veterinary medical literature with an aim toward improvement of coverage, explore cooperative cataloging efforts through policies recommended by the National Program of Acquisitions Cooperation, and study the possible establishment of a union catalog of veterinary monographs.

In 1976, the group established an Ad Hoc Basic List of Veterinary Serials Committee to prepare a list of veterinary journals essential to the operation of a veterinary medical library. Chaired by Atha Louise Henley, the committee completed a "Basic List of Veterinary Serials" which was approved by the group at its annual meeting on June 13, 1977. The committee's methodology and the resultant "Basic List" were published in 1978. [9] In their final report, the Ad Hoc committee recommend the formation of a standing committee which the group approved.

The Veterinary Serials Committee, chaired by Trenton Boyd, began its work in 1978 to maintain, update and publish the "Basic List of Veterinary Medical Serials" on a regular basis; to notify members of veterinary serials changes (new titles, title changes, cessations, etc) on a regular basis, provided no similar publication is available; to identify and report serial-related issues of interest to section and, upon request, to express section concerns on such issues to appropriate individuals and/or organizations; and to work with organizations to provide veterinary libraries with copies of their publications. The section approved the second edition of the "Basic List " on June 18, 1980. Given the ever-changing world of serials, the committee continued to make revisions until 1986 when they published Basic List of Veterinary Medical Serials, 2nd ed., 1981, with revisions to April 1, 1986. [10] The committee chair, Trenton Boyd, regularly monitors changes in serials of veterinary interest and report those changes to the membership, usually through a section newsletter column, which was first entitled "Veterinary Serendipity" and now is known as "Veterinary Serial Happenings."

Beginning in 1977 as the Ad Hoc Committee on Foreign and Little-Used Serials Union List, chaired by Kathrine MacNeil, this committee was charged with compiling a list of foreign (published outside of North America) veterinary serials with owning libraries and their holdings for use as a interlibrary loan tool. In 1980, they produced and distributed a microfiche publication, Veterinary serials: a union list of selected titles not indexed by Index medicus and held by veterinary collections in the U.S. and Canada, which netted $170.00 for the section. David Anderson became chair of the Union List Committee in 1982. By 1990, the committee had compiled a union list of veterinary serials, which was published in two volumes as Veterinary serials: a union list of serials held in veterinary collections in Canada, Europe, and the U.S.A. 2d, 1987-1988[12] Since 1995, Esther Carrigan has chaired the committee, which is working toward publication of a third, electronic edition of the Veterinary serials : a union list. In 1996, the committee reported thirty-three responses to their survey with a majority of libraries having current serials information in electronic format, 70% of the US libraries utilizing SERHOLD, and more than half of the European libraries utilizing OCLC. Preferred format was an electronic file linked to section home page with a continuing interest in a true union list. The committee is pursuing the possibility of electronically updating holdings in the union list for those members who are active DOCLINE participants and exploring other online update forms as well. Their goal is to begin actual holdings updates in 1999.

Also in 1977, the Committee to Survey Veterinary Medical Libraries, chaired by Guy Coffee, was charged to compile statistical data to be updated periodically including information on library square footage, school population, collection holding and locally performed functions. Information about salaries would be gathered separately, and survey data should be collected every third year. The first three surveys were published:

  • 1st survey, FY 1977-78. Johnson, K. S., Coffee, E.G. Veterinary medical school libraries in the United States and Canada 1977/78. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. 70(1):10-20. 1982.
  • 2d survey, FY 1980-81. Johnson, K. S. Veterinary medical school libraries in the United States and Canada--a second look 1980-1981. Journal of Veterinary Medical Education. 9(2):41-45. Winter, 1983.
  • 3d Survey, FY 1983-84. Veterinary school libraries in the U.S. and Canada - 1983/84. Highlights and News Notes, no. 18:1,3-15. Fall, 1986.

After that time, the surveys were prepared as follows and distributed to survey participants:

  • 4th survey, FY 1984-85; 5th survey, FY 1985-86; 6th survey, FY 1988-89; and
  • 7th survey FY 1990-91.

Beginning in 1991, the survey methodology changed with a full survey to be conducted every third year and a brief survey of "critical data" in the intervening two years. The survey continues to be produced and distributed to survey participants and other interested parties. Members find it to be particularly useful for strategic planning and for accreditation site visits from the American Veterinary Medical Association. In 1989, the committee affirmed that an article on comparative veterinary library data would be submitted for publication to a recognized journal once every five years. Suzanne Johnson, Vicki Croft, Robert Sessions, Gayle Willard, Minna Sellers, Ken Ladd, and Kathrine MacNeil have chaired theSurvey Committee over the years.

In 1979, the Bylaws Committee was formed to prepare the Veterinary Medical Libraries Group for the new structure for interest groups in the Medical Library Association with Gretchen Stephens appointed chair. The first formal bylaws of the group were approved on June 18, 1980 with the name changing to Veterinary Medical Libraries Section of the Medical Library Association. In 1982, the growing responsibilities of the section chair and a decision to charge dues led the section to revise the bylaws dividing that office into chair and secretary-treasurer (chair-elect). These bylaws were submitted to the Medical Library Association for review and judged to be in compliance as confirmed by a letter from the chair of the MLA Bylaws Committee in July of 1983.

In 1985, minor revisions were approved to establish the Nominating Committee and to change the time for submitting the MLA Nominating Committee candidate. In 1987, the section voted to amend the bylaws and split the secretary-treasurer office into secretary/chair-elect and treasurer. In 1988, the section reluctantly approved $10 dues and set a $10 subscription price on Highlights and News Notes so that those colleagues who did not belong to MLA might have access. On May 15, 1994, the section approved a bylaws revision, which called for the elected officers to be the chair (chairperson), chair-elect (chairperson-elect), secretary, treasurer, and the immediate past chair (chairperson), as well as the representative and the alternate representative to the Section Council. At that time, only the Bylaws and the Nominating Committees were specifically listed as standing committees of the section, at the recommendation of the chair of the MLA Bylaws Committee. Thus other standing committees may exist or be created but the bylaws do not have to be amended each time. Vicki Croft served as chair of the committee in 1989 with Gretchen Stephens returning as chair in 1990.

In 1980, a Committee on Exchange of Publications, chaired by David Self, was appointed to conduct a feasibility study on establishing an exchange program. After hearing the committee report in 1981, the membership voted for an informal exchange and the committee was discharged. These informal exchanges continue today among veterinary libraries worldwide through VETLIB-L.

Section members, Ann Kerker and Julie Malamud developed an MLA continuing education course on the "Literature of Veterinary Medicine," which was offered in 1980. When Julie left veterinary librarianship, Trenton Boyd was prepared to teach the course but unfortunately it did not have sufficient enrollment that year. Later in 1991, Trenton Boyd and Kathrine MacNeil were prepared to teach a MLA course on "Laboratory Animal Issues," but regrettably the course was cancelled before many section members were aware of it and could register.

Committee on International Affairs was appointed in 1981 to promote exchange of information on common affairs, exchange of publications and communications with foreign veterinary libraries. Chaired by Jean-Paul Jette, this committee also compiled a computerized list of new veterinary related-monographs and serials from member libraries' accession lists using the University of Montreal's TELUM computer. Later chaired by LaVerne Jones and Terri Switzer, this committee was discharged in 1992. However, Jean-Paul's work in computerized access to veterinary resources continues as seen at the "Veterinary Journals: Tables of Contents" and "Veterinary Conference Proceedings" Web site.

As noted earlier, the section newsletter, Highlights and News Notes, began publication in 1974 with Guy Coffee serving as editor. When Guy stepped down as editor in 1985, aNewsletter Committee was formed to continue publication of the newsletter on a regular basis. David Anderson (1985-1987), Kathrine MacNeil (1987-1988) served as editor with Guy Coffee handling the first issue of 1989. In mid-1989, Mitsuko (Mitzi) Williams and Priscilla Smiley (University of Illinois) volunteered to be co-editors. Under their able leadership for eight years, the semiannual newsletter developed into a quality publication worthy of its own ISSN (International Standard Serial Number). Leslie Behm became editor of the newsletter in 1997.

In 1984, the Public Relations Committee, under Chair Sue Loubiere, was created to serve as a public relations and information source about the section's activities, and as the section's liaison to the American Veterinary Medical Association and other organizations in providing information and coordinating projects, as well as to develop guidelines and policies for regulating and providing standards in establishing displays and exhibits at organizational meetings. Prior to the establishment of the committee, section members periodically helped staff a National Agricultural Library exhibit at the AVMA annual meeting, and those experiences led the section to establish the committee to coordinate those activities. Guy Coffee became chair in 1986, and began work on guidelines for participation in future exhibits. Also from 1986 to 1997, the committee assumed, from Marjan Merala, the responsibility to prepare the "Directory of Information Sources" section of the annual American Veterinary Medical Association Directory. By 1991, Guy Coffee and Ann Viera had prepared and printed a brochure on guidelines for section sponsorship and participation in exhibits. Over the years, the section members have organized a exhibit on library services at AVMA meetings, including New York (1983), New Orleans (1984), Seattle (1991), Minneapolis (1993), and San Francisco (1994). The committee also assumed responsibility in 1998 for the Directory of Veterinary Medical Libraries and Librarians noted below.

In 1985, the section supported David Anderson's proposal to prepare a price index comparison of the "Basic List" serials using 1977 as the base year in comparison with 1983, 1984, and 1985. Since that time, these price index comparisons were published by David, [13] and upon his retirement, continued by Naomi Facker. [14]

Beginning in 1985, Susanne K. Whitaker chaired the Directory of Veterinary Medical Libraries and Librarians Committee with the charge to compile and distribute the names and addresses of veterinary libraries and librarians of the United States and Canada. Melinda Saffer-Marchand and Norma Bruce prepared later directories.

Committee to Investigate the Possibility of Writing a History of the Section was formed in 1987. Prior to that time, the section's archives had resided with the current chair or a past shair. Chaired by Trenton Boyd, the committee presented a report in May of 1988 that encouraged the appointment of a single Archivist, who would house the section archives and draft a history. In 1989, Atha Louise Henley was appointed Archivist. In 1994, she submitted a manuscript entitled "Establishment and Expansion of the Veterinary Medical Libraries Group / Section of the Medical Library Association 1970 Through 1990," which substantively serves as the first half of this history. Upon Miss Henley's retirement, Gretchen Stephens was appointed Archivist in 1996.

Established in 1988, the International Relations Committee is charged to take a leadership role in fostering cooperation in the area of resource and information sharing among the animal health and welfare libraries around the world to support the informational needs of the animal health and welfare communities. First chaired by LaVerne K. Jones (1988/1989) and Terri Switzer (1990/1991), the committee has been under the leadership of Victoria T. Kok since 1991. In 1996, the committee presented a poster session, "Veterinary Medical Librarians: Their Emerging Roles in International Cooperation," at the 14th Symposium on Veterinary Medical Education in Athens, Georgia. They also presented a poster session, "Globalization of Veterinary Medical Library Services," at MLA in Seattle (1997). The committee also has submitted "International Profile" columns on colleague librarians from other counties to Highlights and News Notes.

From 1989 to 1994, Guy Coffee served as the Section's Liaison to the MLA Governmental Relations Committee. He alerted section members to various legislative issues requiring their input via Highlights and News Notes and later through VETLIB-L, the section listserv. Pat Mullen has served as the liaison since 1994.

In 1989, an Ad Hoc Committee on International Conference of Animal Health Information Specialists began to explore ways of holding an international conference of veterinary librarians. In 1990, the Planning Committee of the First International Conference of Animal Health Information Specialists was formed to begin studying the matter of sponsorship for the proposed International Conference and the logistics for the project. The committee, composed of Mitsuko "Mitzi" Williams (chair), Trenton Boyd, and Vicki Croft, included many other section members handling mailing lists, keynote and invited speakers, contributed papers, and general tour information. Benita Horder and Linda Warden were British members of the Planning Committee with Dr. George Phillips bringing the sponsorship of CAB International. Grants were obtained from the section, the National Agricultural Library, and Hill's Pet Products. The University of Illinois Conferences Division, under Carol Downs, served as the conference planning coordinator. The 1st International Conference of Animal Health Information Specialists was held at the University of Reading, UK, on July 16-19, 1992. [15]

An Ad Hoc Committee on Foreign Language Serials Cancellation and Retention was appointed in 1991 to review and strive to ensure that one subscription of each foreign language serial germane to veterinary sciences will be available in the United States and Canada for timely access by the veterinary medical community. Chaired by Ann Viera, the committee completed a literature review and developed a plan by which a library might cancel a foreign low-use title that was endangered (last one held in country/continent) providing other veterinary libraries were notified. The committee was disbanded in 1996.

Since 1991, Victoria ("Vicki East") T. Kok, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, has served as Web Master for the section. At that time, she created and continues to monitor VETLIB-L (, a e-mail discussion group or listserv for veterinary librarians and animal health information specialists. This listserv serves as an invaluable forum to discuss issues and exchange information with the "wired" veterinary library community worldwide. [16] Section members may consult with more than 200 colleagues in more than thirty countries on difficult questions such as "What is a horse burr?," "How do bloodhounds detect scents?," or "What are lavender foals?" Librarians from South Africa, Sweden or Missouri may assist a colleague seeking a key article for a veterinarian facing an outbreak of Shipping Fever or trying to find an expert on a neurological disease of ostriches. [17] In 1995, Victoria designed and continues to maintain the VMLS Home Page.

Ken Ladd, a Section member from the University of Saskatchewan, also developed and maintains a web page listing veterinary libraries worldwide.

From 1993 to1995, the Ad Hoc Committee on Rural Datification Study, chaired by Norma Funkhouser, investigated ways that veterinary medical librarians can become involved in rural datification and assist practitioners to become part of the "information highway." The committee presented a two-page report at the 1995 annual business meeting summarizing the issue and recommending that the issue to continue to be monitored on an individual base and that the committee be dismissed.

The committees described above regrettably may not include every one created by the section. Insufficient data and time prevented the authors from preparing a comprehensive listing. Hopefully, those committees with active and long-standing charges have been included so that a glimpse into the section's diverse interests is provided.

VMLS Outreach
Although one of the smaller sections, VMLS continues to be quite active. The section's first international venture began with the sponsorship of the 1st International Conference of Animal Health Information Specialists at the University of Reading, UK on July 16-19, 1992. To the amazement of the twenty-five VMLS members attending the conference, our section appeared to be the only formal organization of veterinary librarians in the world! Since then the synergy of the 1st International Conference has given rise to the Animal Health Information Specialists (AHIS)--UK in 1993 and the European Veterinary Libraries Group (EVLG) of the European Association for Health Information and Libraries(EAHIL) in 1996.

In 1995, Vicki Croft, Isabel McDonald, Caroline Kopper, and Trenton Boyd from our Section had the opportunity to attend and contribute to the 1st Conference of African Animal Health Information Workers held at Onderstepoort, South Africa. [18] Erica van der Westhuizen (University of Pretoria), an attendee of the Reading conference, and her staff organized this first African conference, which drew delegates from seven African nations, the United Kingdom and the United States.

In 1997, the 2nd International Conference of Animal Health Information Specialists, which was hosted by our Scandinavian colleagues within the EVLG, was held on July 1-4 in Copenhagen. [19] The section donated $500 in support of the conference, which eleven Section members attended. A concern voiced in Copenhagen was that potential colleagues from Asia, South America, and parts of Africa and the former Soviet countries might not yet know of the international conferences nor how to contact their colleagues worldwide. Veterinary librarians continue to spread the word as they contact or visit distant colleagues as seen in Vicki Croft's recent sabbatical to Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay .

The synergy continues as the Animal Health Information Specialists - UK, who were considering hosting the third international conference in England perhaps in 2002, were invited to participate in the 8th International Congress on Medical Librarianship to be held at the Queen Elizabeth II Conference Center, London, on July 2-5, 2000. Many Section members are drafting presentations and saving their coins toward their next venture "across the pond."

Many factors have contributed to the growth and expansion of the Veterinary Medical Libraries Section (VMLS). It has been a very effective vehicle enabling members to meet and work with other medical librarians and to learn and benefit from the expertise of one another. Today, VMLS continues to meet to identify and solve common concerns, but with electronic communication members are now more actively a part of a global network of animal health information specialists.

This review of the development of the section from 1972 through 1998 provides an opportunity to remember and to celebrate our contributions and our growth.


  1. "Colleges of Veterinary Medicine of the United States and Canada." In American Veterinary Medical Association. Membership directory and resource manual. The Association, 1993: 190.
  2. "Information on Medical Library Association Sections." [1990].
  3. Kerker, Ann E. Personal communication. 1973.
  4. Merala, Marjan. Personal communication. 1993.
  5. "Proceedings of the annual meeting of the Medical Library Association." Bulletin of the Medical Library Association April, 1974, 62(2):214
  6. Brown, Sarah C. Personal communication. 1974.
  7. Brown, Sarah C. "President's Page." Bulletin of the Medical Library Association Jan.1974, 62(1):69.
  8. Dunlap, Alice. "President's Page: Ann Elizabeth Kerker." Bulletin of the Medical Library Association July, 1976. 64(3):333-4.
  9. Henley, Atha Louise. "Organization and compilation of a basic list of veterinary medical serials," Journal of Veterinary Medical Education. 1978, 5 (3): 136-8.
  10. Boyd, C. Trenton, David C. Hull, Kathrine J. MacNeil, Julie Malamud, David C. Anderson, "Basic List of Veterinary Medical Serials, 2nd ed., 1981, with Revisions to April 1, 1986,"Serials Librarian 1986, 11 (2): 5-39
  11. Veterinary serials: a union list of selected titles not indexed by Index medicus and held by veterinary collections in the U.S. and Canada. [Guelph, Ont.: University of Guelph Library Systems and Data Processing Division], 1980. [microfiche]
  12. Veterinary serials : a union list of serials held in veterinary collections in Canada, Europe, and the U.S.A. 2d, 1987-1988. 2 v. [Davis, Calif.: Veterinary Medical Libraries Section, Medical Library Association.], 1990.
  13. David C. Anderson, "Journals for Academic Veterinary Medical Libraries: Price Increases, 1977 and 1983 through 1986," Serials Librarian 1986, 11 (2): 41-46; David C. Anderson, "Journals for Academic Veterinary Medical Libraries: Price Increases, 1977, 1986 and 1987, Page Costs, 1977 and 1986," Serials Librarian 1988, 14 (1-2): 81-88; David C. Anderson, "Journals for Academic Veterinary Medical Libraries: Price Increases, 1977, 1987 and 1988," Serials Librarian 1988, 15 (1-2): 167-171; David C. Anderson, "Journals for Academic Veterinary Medical Libraries: Price Increases, 1977, 1988 and 1989," Serials Librarian 1989, 16 (3-4): 81-91; David C. Anderson, "Journals for Academic Veterinary Medical Libraries: Price Increases, 1977-1990 and 1983-1990," Serials Librarian 1990, 18 (3-4): 73-86; David C. Anderson, "Journals for Academic Veterinary Medical Libraries: Price Increases, 1977-1991 and 1983-1991," Serials Librarian 1991, 21 (1): 47-63; David C. Anderson, "Journals for Academic Veterinary Medical Libraries: Price Increases, 1983-1992," Serials Librarian 1992, 23 (1-2): 113-128.
  14. Naomi P. Fackler, "Journal for Academic Veterinary Medical Libraries: Price Increases, 1983-1993," Serials Librarian 1994, 25 (1-2): 157-167; Naomi P. Fackler, "Journal for Academic Veterinary Medical Libraries: Price Increases, 1983-1994," Serials Librarian 1995, 27 (4): 41-50; Naomi P. Fackler, "Journal for Academic Veterinary Medical Libraries: Price Increases, 1983-1998," Serials Librarian 1999, 37 (1): [in press].
  15. International Conference of Animal Health Information Specialists (1st: 1992 : University of Reading). Animal health information: planning for the 21st century. [S.l: s.n.], 1993. 189 p.
  16. MacNeil, Kathrine. "VETLIB-L Survey," Highlights and News Notes 1993 32: 8-11.
  17. Stephens, Gretchen and Croft, Vicki. "One Medicine--Many Species!" MLA News 296 (May, 1997): 1,8.
  18. African Animal Health Information Workers. Conference (1st : 1995 : University of Pretoria). Proceedings of the 1st Conference of the African Animal Health Information Workers. [Osterstepoort, S.A.]: Veterinary Science Library, Academic Information Service, University of Pretoria, 1995. 99 p.
  19. International Conference of Animal Health Information Specialists (2nd: 1997 : Kongelige Veterinaerog landbohjskole, Denmark). Animal health information: structuring and sharing, global and local. Frederiksberg, Denmark: Danish Veterinary and Agricultural Library, 1998. 120 p.

Submitted by Atha Louise Henley, Kathrine MacNeil and Gretchen Stephens
February 1, 1999